High School

External Resource Links

Recommended Reading

Rubric Basics

Surprising Science of Motivation by Daniel Pink

Teaching History: A Journal of Methods

College & University

External Resource Links

Difference Matters

"Farewell Lecture" (podcast reading of essay by Eric Mazur)

Get Organized for Yearly Evaluations

Instructional Design Basics (with specific reference to eLearning)

Mid-Semester Evaluations

Syllabi: How to Create a Syllabus Guidelines (Kevin Gannon, Grand View University)

Recommended Reading

Rubric Basics

Surprising Science of Motivation by Daniel Pink

Advisement Syllabus

Advisement Essentials

Outcomes Assessment Essentials (this section below is under major renovation; links need to be re-established, noted 18 May 2015)

Outcomes Assessment Essentials No. 1: Articulate Goals, Objectives, Outcomes Identifies methods departments can adopt to develop learning goals; compares learning goal statements to identify better practices; provides a list of "action verbs" to write learning goals; provides hyperlinks to useful websites.

Outcomes Assessment Essentials No. 2: Types of Outcomes Assessment Measures Defines direct and indirect measures; provides a list of both kinds of measures; explains the advantages of course-embedded assessment; explains add-on and value-added assessment methods; identifies "four characteristics of useful assessment"; addresses faculty concerns about assessment; includes hyperlinks.

Outcomes Assessment Essentials No. 3: Assessment Audit Helps programs and departments identify how they may already be doing outcomes assessment; lists a number of questions that departments should ponder when they complete the audit; specifically raises questions for BU faculty to consider and makes references to the General Education Guidelines.

Outcomes Assessment Essentials No 4: Test Blueprinting, A Course-Embedded Tool defines test blueprinting and explains how student scores on individual test items can be used to report outcomes. It explains advantages to learning, teaching, and writing objective exams by demonstrating the link between test items and student learning objectives. Of course, how test blueprinting can be use to report course or program-level outcomes assessment is also explained. In addition, you may find this Test Blueprint Template (Microsoft Word 2010) useful.

Outcomes Assessment Essentials No. 5: Rubrics, A Course-Embedded Tool briefly discusses why accrediting bodies believe grades in isolation cannot be used to report outcomes, but that assignment grades linked to rubrics can be. Briefly explains how rubrics can be advantageous to teaching and learning as well as outcomes assessment. Describes the steps to creating criteria-based rubrics. You may also want to watch the following tutorial, Rubric Basics.

Teaching History

So much of what teachers do derives from tradition: we teach as we were taught. To grow and develop as a teacher, it is necessary to regularly look closely and critically at what we are doing and ask why.

Growth across the career rests on accepting who I am but never being satisfied with what I do.

Maryellen Weimer, Inspired College Teaching, (2010), 34, 40.

In the News:

"Is techonology bringing history to life or distorting it?"(Washington Post, 10 May 2018)

"This College Class on 'Historical Frauds' is Fighting Pseudoscience Head-On" (Huffington Post, 22 March 2017) describes a course at North Carolina State University.

L is for Learning: A New Book on Proven Approaches and How Teachers Can Use Them (NPR, 12 August 2016)

At these Museums, Tragedy is a History Lesson (NPR, 3 August 2016)

In this "Students aren't Coddled. They're Defeated,"(blog post), John Warner shares why he believes students struggle with intrinsic motivation and a technique he uses to get them to see the relevance of a general education course.

"These Videos Could Change How You Think About Teaching" (Chronicle of Higher Education (27 August 2015)

School Board Wants Civil Disorder De-Emphasized; Students Walk Out (NPR, 3 October 2014)

Teaching Resources

Topics Listed Alphabetically: [A-B] [C-D] [E-G] [H-K] [L] [M-O] [P-Q] [R-S] [T-Z]

All points below are under major renovation; links need to be re-established (noted: 18 May 2015).

Active Learning and Increasing Student Engagement. Active learning, an umbrella term for any activity that goes beyond or is incorporated into a lecture, encourages students to apply what they are learning and promises greater student engagement with the course content. While we associate active learning with higher-order congnitive skill development, some active learning techniques focus on knowledge acquisition. In these two videos, see how science faculty engage students in learning through hands-on techniques. Dr. Taryn Bayles, University of Maryland-Baltimore County discusses the benefits of active learning in an Engineering 101 (video 2:29 minutes) course. Dr. Richard Felder, the Hoechst Celanese Professor Emeritus of Chemical Engineering at North Carolina State University, explores active learning in a large class (video 11:44 minutes). One way to increase engagement: survey or quiz students to get immediate feedback followed by discussion, additional demonstrations, or lecture if you perceive a need. This can be done in large or small classes with "clickers". But if you would like to experiment with this technique and need "Low-tech alternatives to clickers," check out this blogpost by Heather M. Whitney, assistant professor of Physics at Wheaton College (Illinois). If you would like to learn more about a movement to keep lectures to a minimum and increase active learning, even in large classes, you might want to listen to "Don't lecture me," a new documentary from American Radioworks. For additional active learning techniques and strategies, see also: Clickers (a.k.a. Student Response Systems); Collaborative or Cooperative Learning; Concept Mapping; Discussion Method; Flipped Classroom; Gallery Walk; IF-AT (Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique) Inquiry-Based Learning; Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT); Problem-Based Learning; and Team-Based Learning.

Recommended reading from the TALE Library:
Elizabeth Barkley, Student Engagement Techniques: A Handbook for College Faculty.
John Bean, Engaging Ideas: The Professor's Guide to Integrating Writing, Critical Thinking, and Active Learning in the Classroom.
Elisa Carbone, Teaching Large Classes: Tools and Strategies.
Harvey Charles Foyle, ed., Interactive Learning in the Higher Education Classroom: Cooperative, Collaborative, and Active Learning Strategies.
D. W. Johnson, et al., Active Learning: Cooperation in the College Classroom.
Karl Kapp, Gadgets, Games, and Gizmos for Learning: Tools and Techniques for Transferring Know-How from Boomers to Gamers.
C. Meyers, et al., Promoting Active Learning: Strategies for the College Classroom.
Barbara Millis, "Active Learning Strategies in Face-to-Face Classrooms," IDEA Paper 53
Barbara Millis, "Enhancing Learning - and More! Through Cooperative Learning" IDEA Paper 38
Barbara Millis, "Promoting Deep Learning," IDEA Paper 47
W. J. Rothwell, et al., The Handbook of Training Technologies: An Introductory Guide to Facilitating Learning with Technology from Planning through Evaluation
Mel Silberman, Active Learning: 101 Strategies to Teaching Any Subject
Mel Silberman, Teaching Actively: Eight Steps and 32 Strategies to Spark Learning in any Classroom
Ann Stalheim-Smith, "Focusing on Active, Meaningful Learning," IDEA Paper 34

Backward Design can help faculty create their syllabi in a less conventional way. The more common approach is to determine the content that should be taught, determine how many tests or assignments will be given, and then schedule them into your syllabus. Backward design suggests a three step process. Step 1 begins with the faculty member determining what students must understand about the subject matter, not only upon completion of the course, but what is memorable two or three years later. In this context, understanding includes the ability to explain, interpret, apply, have perspective, empathize, and have self-knowledge. Often these goals are stated in the form of essential questions, big ideas and/or core tasks that shape your priorities and all syllabi choices. At this stage force yourself to prioritize between what is absolutely essential, what is important for students to know and do, and with what should they simply be familiar. In Step 2: determine what will be acceptable evidence that students have reached the course goals. The evidence should include a meaningful, authentic cumulative activity or activities (e.g. research projects, major essays, presentations, etc). Evidence would also include the variety of exams and/or assignments that will demonstrate students are making progress towards the ultimate goal(s) of the course. In addition, consider generating feedback from students on how well they are learning (metacognition) and your teaching effectiveness. Step 3: Having determined what will constitute acceptable evidence, you develop learning activities (what the student does) and teaching activities (what the professor does) that will ensure students can answer the essential question, understand the big ideas or complete the core tasks successfully. Please note: sometimes the planning is not strictly linear. As you contemplate acceptable evidence, you will undoubtedly ponder pedagogical choices. Yet knowing what constitutes acceptable evidence offers considerable clarity to develop learning and teaching activities. The backward design model has been used widely in grades K-12 and effectively described by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe. Read a brief summary of Wiggins and McTighe's "Teaching for Uncoverage rather than Coverage," written by Mark Sample, Assistant Professor of Literature and new media at George Mason University. For university faculty, L. Dee Fink advocates a backward design approach to develop university-level course syllabi. See also Syllabi and Course Design.

Recommended reading from the TALE Library:
L. Dee Fink, Creating Significant Learning Experiences
Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Understanding by Design (2nd ed)

Blended (or Hybrid) Learning. No consensus exists on what this term means but its usage tends to be applied to situations in which students meet onsite periodically while completing most coursework through the internet. In its broadest meaning, blended learning describes the traditional, face to face course in which "non-classroom technology" is used for students to complete coursework. Referred to as technologically enhanced teaching, students might be asked to use the internet to view lectures and videos, take virtual tours, conduct webquests, take surveys, review for tests, complete tutorials, etc in order to free up time in class for other activities. The technologically enhanced course did not originate in the age of the personal computer. Did you have a teacher require you to listen to an album or watch a television documentary to complete an assignment? That's blended learning in the most generic sense though it is not how the term is used in Instructional Technology. Technology has changed that makes the creation of videos, tutorials, podcasts, etc easier, though it takes time for faculty to produce. To learn more about how instructional technology is grappling with the definition, read "Blended Learning" by Charlez Dziuban, et al. For ideas on how to use technologically enhanced techniques in a face to face classroom or for teaching online, consider Curtis J. Bonk and Ke Zhang's Empowering Online Learning: 100+ Activities for Reading Reflecting, Displaying, and Doing.

Recommended reading from the TALE Library:
R. Garrison and N. Vaughan, Blended Learning in Higher Education: Framework, Principles, and Guidelines.

Bloom's Taxonomy and Its Revisions. Benjamin Bloom and a group of educational psychologists grouped intellectual behaviors into a taxonomy from lowest to highest in the affective, psychomotor, and cognitive domains. The cognitive domain is the most frequently referenced. For a description of the six levels of the cognitive domain, click here. Clemson University's chart identifies a list of action verbs and defines Bloom's taxonomy in the cognitive domain. In 2001, L. W. Anderson and D. R. Krathwohl revised Bloom's Taxonomy. A useful source for all three domains can be found at The Performance Juxtaposition Site. A list of action words that have been applied to the revised Bloom's Taxonomy may be useful in writing syllabi and outcomes. Iowa State University's Center for Excellence in Teaching and Learning provides a Model for Learning Objectives drawing upon the Anderson and Krathwohl's revision of Bloom's Taxonomy. To learn more about how Bloom's revised Taxonomy can be adapted to the digital age's cognitive behaviors, study Bloom's Digital Taxonomy or read "Bloom's Taxonomy Meets Technology" in the October issue of Online Classroom. Any taxonomy is based upon the goal of creating a common language by which educators can discuss learning. The following two charts match action verbs with student behaviors and the cognitive domain: Bloom's Taxonomy Design Wheel and Teaching Strategies and Taxonomies of Learning. In this taxonomy wheel, you find the revised taxonomy categories that action verbs with activities, but on the outermost circle, the designer defines personal learning categories such as "self-managers," "reflective learners," "creative thinkers," "independent enquirers," "effective participants," and "team workers."

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Classroom Civility and Management. This short, readable list identifies Top 10 Tips for Addressing Sensitive Topics and Maintaining Civility in the Classroom and was composed by the Center for Teaching and Faculty Development at San Francisco State University. Read this short essay entitled "Managing Hot Moments in the Classroom," by Lee Warren, Derek Bok Center for Teaching and Learning, Harvard University. A collection of links to resources for handling incivility in the classroom can be found at the Center for Research on Learning and Teaching at University of Michigan. You can read a few articles about Effective Classroom Management in Faculty Focus, a free newsletter produced by Magna Publications. The POD (Professional and Organizational Development) Network sponsors a wiki: called WikiPODia. Check out what contributors, who are primarily university faculty, have to say about Classroom Management. The Chronicle of Higher Education's Blog, ProfHacker has devoted several postings to disruptive students, colleagues, and professors. Faculty Focus, a blog dedicated to higher education, has compiled a group of essys that you might find useful: 10 Effective Classroom Management Techniques Every Faculty Member Should Know. There's an assumption that we all know what civil behavior is in class, consider generating a discussion in the context of "An Effective Learning Environment is a Shared Responsibility," a short article by MaryEllen Weimer. See also Disruptive Student Behavior.

Recommended reading from the TALE Library:
Ken Bain, What the Best College Teachers Do.
Frank Hoppner, Teaching the Large College Class: A Guidebook for Instructors with Multitudes.
Linda Nilson, Teaching at its Best: A Research-Based Resource for College Educators.

Clickers. See Student Response Systems.

Collaborative or Cooperative Learning is a strategy in which students work as teams to complete a variety of learning activities. It is based on the premise that individuals learn most effectively in social groups while developing social skills. Teams might be composed of 2-6 people formed on an ad hoc, informal basis or meet as a peer group throughout the course of the semester. To learn more consider reading articles by Barbara Millis, "Active Learning Strategies in Face-to-Face Courses," IDEA Paper 53, "Promoting Deep Learning," IDEA Paper 47, and "Enhancing Learning -- and More! -- Through Cooperative Learning," IDEA Paper 38. Carnegie Mellon University offers some useful tips on developing groups assignments. The University of Waterloo's Centre for Teaching Excellence Provides a number of resources to contemplte how to implement group work. To promote discussion about group work, consider holding a discussion of Barbara Oakley's "Coping with HItchhikers and Couch Potatoes on Teams." See also Active Learning; Concept Mapping; Jigsaw Activity; Problem-Based Learning; Team-Based Learning.

Recommended reading from the TALE Library:
Elizabeth Barkley, et al, Collaborative Learning Techniques: A Handbook for College Faculty.

Concept Mapping. Dr. Karen Rohrbauck Stout, Associate Professor of Communications at Western Washington University defines and explains how she uses Concept Mapping in her teaching. If you are interested in free concept mapping software, check out the Institute for Human and Machine Cognition's website; it is a non-profit affiliated with the Florida University System. The website, organized as a concept map, offers ideas on best practices, concept map tool programs, and so forth. Give yourself some time to explore. To learn more about using graphic organizers to teach, read Kenneth Kiewra's "Using Graphic Organizers to Improve Teaching and Learning," IDEA Paper 51.

Copyright. Bloomsburg University's Andruss Library offers these guidelines. This web site discusses 10 common myths about copyright. In addition, I would recommend Stanford University Libraries web site especially Copyright FAQs, Fair Use, Public Domain, and The TEACH Act. The Chronicle of Higher Education recommended the following additional websites for more information about Copyright: Best Practices from the American University Center for Social Media; The Copyright Crash Course from the University of Texas at Austin; Copyright Term and the Public Domain in the United States from Cornell University; A Map of Use Issues from the University of Minnesota; Public Domain Slider, Section 108 Spinner, and Fair Use Evaluator from the American Library Association; and Tales from the Public Domain: Bound by Law? A comic book from public domain scholars at the Duke University Law School (list compiled by Ben Wieder).

Course Design. See Syllabi and Course Design.

Critical Thinking is defined concisely in Linda Nilson's "Unlocking the Mystery of Critical Thinking." It can be promoted in a variety of ways. Cindy Lynch and Susan Wolcott suggest a model "Steps for Better Thinking ... a map for structuring ... efforts to optimize students' thinking skills." If you want to think about how to encourage students to set forth a convincing argument, read about the Toulmin model and see how two BU faculty have adapted it to their assignments. Ronald Jones lists a number of suggestions on how to promote critical thinking in "The Instructor's Challenge: Moving Students beyond Opinions to Critical Thinking."

Curriculum Mapping is a graphic tool that programs or departments can use to locate and track what skills, content, or concepts are being taugght in courses required for their majors. Curriculum mapping can help departments determine if their programs have gaps or are affording students enough opportunity to learn and reinforce skills. To learn more about the basics, visit University of Hawaii at Manoa Assessment How-To. Southern Connecticut State University provides additional information that is quite useful about curriculum mapping including a PowerPoint presentation, worksheet, etc. A sample curriculum map from University of West Florida may help you visualize what a completed project looks like. You may also want to contact Bloomsburg University's Director of Planning and Assessment for additional examples and advice on how curriculum mapping may help your program.

Recommended reading from the TALE Library:
Linda Nilson, The Graphic Syllabus and the Outcomes Map: Communicating Your Course

Deep Learning vs. Surface Learning. Some educators make a distinction between deep learning, that "promotes long-term retention" and surface learning, when the material is quickly forgotten after an exam or assignment. To explore why some students engage in deep learning, why others take a superficial approach, and how faculty might create a more engaging learning environment, watch Teaching Teaching and Understanding Understanding Part 1 of 3; Part 2 of 3; Part 3 of 3 (20 min video). The video, produced by John Biggs, is inspired by his publication, Teaching for Quality Learning at University: What the Student Does (3rd ed.) and available through Andruss' ebrary collection. Contemplate Barbara Millis' explanation of deep learning and how it can be promoted in her essay, "Promoting Deep Learning," IDEA Paper 47. See also Active Learning; Learning; Metacognition; Learner-Centered Paradigm Shift.

Recommended reading from the TALE Library:
L. Dee Fink, Creating Significant Learning Experiences
Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Understanding by Design (2nd ed)

Digital Media Assignments. Are you interested in having students demonstrate learning by making use of digital media? Project ideas might include digital story telling, virtual poster sessions, infographics, and podcasts. Not sure where to begin? Read and explore the links at this blog "How to design a digital media assignment" by University of Notre Dame's Kaneb Center on Teaching.

Digital Nation. What are the effects of the digital world on our behaviors and how we learn? Watch this PBS Frontline episode, Digital Nation, to learn more. "We're Creating a Culture of Distraction" is a blog video (15 minutes) by Joe Kraus, a Partner at Google Ventures, suggests the impact of technology is undermining our creativity and suggests what we can do. See also Millennial Generation; Multitasking; Net Generation.

Discussion Method. How can discussions promote learning? What are best practices when conducting discussions in class? Discussions afford students opportunities to make inquiries, exchange ideas, to put into language their understanding, and explore uncertainties while the teacher or classmates facilitate. Discussions can occur in pairs, small groups, or whole class. William Cashin offers suggestions about "Effective Classroom Discussions," IDEA Paper 49, where you might begin exploring the possibilities.The Faculty Focus blog offers a number of useful short articles about promoting and grading discussion. Just recently, they pulled together a group of "Tips for Encouraging Student Participation." Maryellen Weimer reminds us that "Better Questions are the Answer" and developing "Prompts that Get Students to Analyze, Relfect, Relate and Question," are key to effective discussions.

Recommended reading from the TALE Library:
S. Brookfield, The Skillful Teacher: On Technique, Trust, and Responsiveness in the Classroom (especially chapters 7-8)
S. Brookfield and S. Preskill, Discussion as a Way of Teaching: Tools and Techniques for Democratic Classrooms.
S. Brookfield and S. Preskill, "Getting Lecturers to Take Discussion Seriously," To Improve the Academy (2000): 232-253.
Robert Magnan, ed. 147 Practical Tips for Teaching Professors (sections).
R. A. Neff, and M. Weimar, Classroom Communication: Collected Readings for Effective Discussion and Questioning.
Shelley Reuter, "Sustaining the Undergraduate Seminar: On the Importance of Modeling and Giving Guidelines," To Improve the Academy (2007): 225-237.

Disruptive Student Behavior. Familiarize yourself with Bloomsburg University's policy (PRP 3881) that identifies a ranke of activities that might define as disruptive and explains BU's behavioral expectations. Consider reading up on the topic after all most of us have no training in classroom management. Jennifer Haney and Benjamin Franek, faculty of Enivronmental, Geographical and Geological Sciences, suggest a number of readings, many of which are available on the ProfHacker Blog sponsored by the Chronicle of Higher Education or through BU's library database. Recognizing that how we project ourselves in the classroom may involve some acting, Benjamin Franek recommends Mel Gordon's The Stanislavsky Technique or even Sun Tzu's The Art of War, not because we are doing battle in the classroom, but because it helps us ponder appropriate responses under changing conditions.

Boice, Bob. “Classroom incivilities.” Research in Higher Education 37, no. 4 (1996): 453-86.
Buttner, E. Holly. “How do we “dis” students?: A model of (dis)respectful business instructor behavior.” Journal of Management Education 28, no. 3 (2004): 319-34.
Fendrich, Laurie. “Spare the rod, spoil the student.” The Chronicle of Higher Education’s Brainstorm (February 2012).
Hara, Billie. “Disruptive student behavior.” The Chronicle of Higher Education’s Profhacker (October 2009).
Hara, Billie. “Disruptive student behavior: The case of talkative Nancy.” The Chronicle of Higher Education’s Profhacker (February 2010).
Hara, Billie. “Disruptive student behavior: The disrespecters.” The Chronicle of Higher Education’s Profhacker (September 2010).
Hara, Billie. “Disruptive student behavior: The entitled students.” The Chronicle of Higher Education’s Profhacker (February 2012).
Hara, Billie. “Disruptive student behavior (The professor edition).” The Chronicle of Higher Education’s Profhacker (January 2011).
Hara, Billie. “Disruptive student behavior: Do you really know what you’d do?” The Chronicle of Higher Education’s Profhacker (March 2012).
Lippmann, Stephen, Ronald E, Bulanda, and Theodore C. Wagenaar. “Student Entitlement: Issues and strategies for confronting entitlement in the classroom and beyond.” College Teaching 57, no. 4 (2009): 197-204.
Meyers, Steven A. “Strategies to prevent and reduce conflict in college classrooms.” College Teaching 51, no. 3 (2003): 94-98.
Meyers, Steven A., James Bender, Erin K. Hill, and Shantha Y. Thomas. “How do faculty experience and respond to classroom conflict?” International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education 18, no. 3 (2006): 180-87.
Perlmutter, David. “Thwarting misbehavior in the classroom.” The Chronicle of Higher Education’s Chronicle Review (April 2004).
Weimer, Maryellen. “Conditions associated with classroom conflict.” The Teaching Professor 21, no. 6 (2007): 5-6.
Weimer, Maryellen. “Minimizing disruptive behavior in the classroom.” The Teaching Professor (March 2004).

Diversity. To teach about diversity and in multicultural situations, examine Jim Winship's suggestions, "An Approach for Teaching Diversity." He is on the faculty at University of Wisconsin-Whitewater. The Association of American Colleges and Universities maintains Diversity Web: An Interactive Resource Hub for Higher Education. Barbara Gross Davis, Tools for Teaching, devotes a chapter to Diversity and Complexity in the Classroom. The Center for Curriculum Transformation at the University of Washington provides some help in thinking about cultural diversity. The Southern Poverty Law Center's Teaching Tolerance website offers countless educational materials that are intended more for K-12 educators, but the material can be adapted to university classrooms. You may find their program, Writing for Change, particularly useful. The AACU offers a number of ideas on diversity in the college classroom with the Curriculum Transformation Project.

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Evaluation, Tenure and Promotion suggests the best way to get organized. Learn early in your career what sort of documentation is expected. While intended for newer faculty anyone applying for tenure and promotion might find the content useful. This SlideCast lasts approximately 16 minutes in length (created with Captivate). You may also want to contemplate reading the following essays: Billie Hara, Open Letter; Gary Olson, How We Value Faculty Work; Rob Jenkins, The Five Characteristics of Successful New Faculty Members; and The Three-ring Circus of Academia. In the Chronicle of Higher Education's ProfHacker Blog, Anastasia Salter, University of Baltimore, suggests "Starting a Tenure Box."

Exams. See Writing Test Questions.

Field Trips. Learn from Thom Klinger, Biological and Allied Health, some tips on how to organize (and survive!) experiential field trips. His advice comes from years of experience.

First Day of Class. Many of the tips provided by Barbara Gross Davis in Tools for Teaching may appear commonsensical but sometimes we could use a reminder. In Teaching Tip #7: Don't Waste your First Day, check out a variety of activities that you might want to implement on the first day of class or within the first few days. For additional ideas read Maryellen Weimer's "First Day of Class Activities that Create a Climate for Learning," and "Five Things to do on the First Day of Class." In addition, Weimer recommends creating a climate for learning by exploring student motivations in this blog post, "Two Activities that influence the Climate for Learning." If you want your students to engage in a conversation about how "An Effective Learning Environmnet is a Shared Responsibility," consider the discussion prompts outlined by MaryEllen Weimer.

Flipped Classroom. With this learner-centered approach to education, lecture content is "transmitted" to students outside of class time and "homework" is completed in class. The content may be transmitted in a variety of ways, in some cases made easier with advances in instructional technology: assigned readings and recorded lectures (captured with MediaSite, iSpring free, Captivate, podcasts, a traditional mode. What is more, BOLT's quiz features, discussion boards, wiki pages, allow faculty to test students' knowledge. So what to do with the face-to-face time? Use the class time to get students to apply what they have learned by working with the professor and their peers to solve homework problems, engage in cooperative learning, participate in discussions, and conduct experiments. Faculty may still periodically lecture in class in response to difficulties they witness when students struggle with applying out of class lessons to in-class problems. If you are "Looking for 'Flippable' Moments in your Class," read Barbi Honeycutt's suggestions. Andrew Miller, an educational consultant who blogs for Edutopia, offers "Five Best Practices for the Flipped Classroom." Ramsey Musallam, a high school chemistry teacher, reminds us that a well-designed course and good pedagogy must be our first consideration in "Should you Flip Your Classroom?" To experience the student view of a flipped classroom, test your ability to acquire knowledge about how learning occurs by studying this slideshare "Inverting the Classroom, Improving Student Learning," by Robert Talbert, Department of Mathematics and Computing, Franklin College. Roger Freedman, Physics Professor at UC Santa Barabara, also makes the case for Flipping the Traditional Classroom in this brief slidecast. You might be interested in following Susan Murphy's Blog discussing her experimentation with the Flipped Classroom. A quick overview about the Seven Things You Should Know About the Flipped Classroom is offered by Educause. See also Just-in-Time Teaching.

Formative Assessment involves gathering information about student learning and faculty teaching that is ongoing. The assessment may include graded items (e.g. quizzes, homework), reflection journals, diagnostic tests, and surveys that provide feedback on quality of instruction or students' study skills, perceptions, etc. The results are used by faculty and students to make adjustments to improve learning. In contrast, summative assessment evaluates students mastery at the end of a major units and semester and may include mid-term and cumulative exams, major essays, capstone projects, etc which are graded. See Student Evaluations for a discussion of some ways faculty can evaluate their teaching during the course of the semester.

Freshmen. Do you want to encourage freshmen to ponder what it means to learn? Consider assigning and discussing the following essay written by Robert Leamnson, "Learning (Your First Job)." It is addressed to students; he discusses what it means to learn. You may also want to consider playing the Perry Game with freshmen to encourage them to think about how they perceive what learning is. To explore why some students engage in deep learning, why others take a superficial approach, and how faculty might create a more engaging learning environment, search the web for Teaching Teaching and Understanding Understanding (20 min video). Want some insight on BU's freshmen class who graduate in 2017? Jennifer Johnson and Mary Katherine Wabeil Duncan share their ongoing research about attitudes, values, beliefs of our incoming freshmen in this recording of Clash of Cultures from a TALE seminar on 10 October 2013. In addition, if you want to learn more about the millenial students, you might want to watch Ethan Krupp and Christian Grandzol's presentation, "What the text is up with my students?"

Recommended reading from the TALE Library:
S. Brookfield, The Skillful Teacher: On Technique, Trust, and Responsiveness in the Classroom (especially chapter 12)
Denise Davidson, TALE Teaching Tips #2: Self-Authorship and the Learning Partnerships Model
P. M. King and K. S. Kitchener, Developing Reflective Judgment.
Rebekah Nathan, My Freshmen Year: What a Professor Learned by Becoming a Student.
Robert Leamnson Thinking about Teaching and Learning: Developing Habits of Learning with First Year College and University Students.
See also Digital Nation; Learning; Metacognition; Multitasking.

Gallery Walk (video, 4 minutes) is an active learning technique that gets students out of their chairs, sharing ideas with each other in repsonse to questions that encourage synthesis or consensus building. The responses are posted on charts, large newsprint, or just paper and posted around the classroom. Then students study each chart, potentially posting questions, followed by a reporting out and debriefing session. For additional resources, check out The SERC (Science Education Resource Center) Portal for Educators.


Gamification. "uses the elements of games to motivate and engage the learner." So, how does it differ from simulations or learning games? Watch "What is gamification?" (10 minute video) by Karl Kapp, IIT at Bloomsburg University, where he explains the concept.

Good Work "is a large scale effort to identify individuals and institutions that exemplify good work -- work that is excellent in quality, socially responsible, and meaningful to its practitioners -- and to determine how best to increase the incidence of good work in our society." To learn more about the Good Work Initiative at BU, including resources, start here. The Good Work Project provides a Toolkit that faculty and students can use to reflect upon good work and how to practice it. To read more about how the Good Work Project has been applied to a variety of disciplines in K-12 and higher education, consult the ongoing list of publications. You may also want to listen to Howard Gardner's complete lecture, "From Multiple Intelligences (MI) to Good Work," given at Bloomsburg University 10 November 2010. In spring 2011, Howard Gardner discussed the "challenges of 'Good Work' in America" at the Duke Sanford School of Public Policy, Crown Lecture (1 hour 23 min; first 10 minutes are introductions).

Recommended reading from the TALE Library:
The Goodwork Toolkit.
Howard Gardner, Responsibility at Work: How Leading Professionals Act (or Don't Act) Responsibly.
Howard Gardner, et al., Good Work: When Excellence and Ethics Meet.

Grade Inflation. Is grade inflation a myth or reality? If it is a reality, what leads to grade inflation and what can we do about it? Lack of academic rigor? The influence of student evaluations? Improved teaching effectiveness? Is it a nation-wide "problem"? The following articles will allow you to ponder grade inflation though these only represent a small number of publications about the topic. Alvaro Barriga, et al. "Dialogue and Exchange of Information about Grade Inflation can Counteract its Effects;" Elizabeth Boretz, "Grade Inflation and the Myth of Student Consumerism;" Thomas Bartley and Paula Wasley, "Just Say 'A': Grade Inflation Undergoes Reality Check;" and Alfie Kohn, "The Dangerous Myth of Grade Inflation."

Grading. Seeing the fruits of our students' labors is always a pleasure, but when we actually have to grade their work, many of us would prefer to have a root canal. Many of our grading techniques may originate from how we were mentored by faculty, if at all, while we were graduate students. It might help to reflect upon and revisit your grading techniques by reading some essential works. Several aspects of grading, the fundamentals that many of us may not know since we don't have an education degree are found in IDEA Papers 16-19: Clegg and Cashin, "Improving Multiple-Choice Tests," (No. 16); Cashin, "Improving Essay Tests," (No. 17); Hanna and Cashin, "Matching Instructional Objectives, Subject Matter, Tests, and Score Interpretations," (No. 18); and Hanna and Cashin, "Improving College Grading," (No. 19). Though these essays are a bit dated their content remains timely. The Council of Writing Program Administrators offfers resources for how to assess writing and communicate to students in its Assessment Gallery and Resources.

Recommended reading from the TALE Library:
Barbara Walvoord and Virginia Anderson's Effective Grading: A Tool for Learning and Assessment.
John Bean, Engaging Ideas (portions).
Katerine Gottschalk and Keith Hjortshoj, Elements of Teaching Writing.
See also Rubrics.

Grading Blogs. This essay provides a few useful tips on how two faculty grade blogs. In addition links to related articles will help you ponder how to incorporate blogs into your assignments. ProfHacker is published through the Chronicle of Higher Education and available free through email.

Group Work. See Collaborative Learning.

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Hybrid Learning. See Blended Learning.

IF-AT (Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique) Forms allows for immediate feedback to students taking multiple choice tests. The immediate feedback allows you and your students to gauge their learning in a timely manner. These forms can be used to test individually or in groups by simply scratching a "thin opaque film covering the answer options...If the answer is correct, a star or other symbol appears." If incorrect, then the student must re-examine his/her original response. Many faculty use IF-AT forms to conduct formative assessment, group testing, and team-based learning. The TALE Center has IF-AT forms, and we can tell you about some faculty who use them in their classes. In addition, you can visit Epstein Educational Enterprises to learn more.

Information Literacy can be a difficult concept to define. To be information literate does not simply mean that one can locate information using the internet or by entering brick and mortar libraries; one must also be able to evaluate the information. It is an essential twenty-first century skill. Linda Neyer, on the Andruss Library Faculty, has written a very useful explanation, which is part of the TALE Teaching Tip series: #6: Information Literacy. Neyer not only defines information literacy, she also suggests teaching techniques, readings, discipline-specific resources, and challenges that we confront in developing our students information literacy skills.

Inquiry-Based Learning or Inquiry Education. Inquiry-based learning (IBL) has been most extensively developed in the sciences and mathematics. IBL depends upon the students "engaging a topic and building a base knowledge, developing a question, anticipating possible answers and determining relevant information, identifying resources and gathering information, assessing information, weighing evidence and synthesizing understandings, communicating new understandings and evaluating success." Because inquiry drives the discovery process, students develop critical thinking skills and have an incentive to remember the content. In Chemistry, a prominent IBL approach is called POGIL-Process Oriented Guided Inquiry Learning. See a biochemistry demonstration by Andrei Straumanis (13 minutes). In Mathematics, R. L. Moore led the way. He would "virtually prohibit students from using textbooks during the learning process, call for only the briefest of lectures in class and demand no collaboration or conferring between classmates." The Moore Method is explained at the Legacy of R. L. Moore website, where you can find demonstrations and reading materials. The Moore Method has been modified. See how the Schreyer Institute at Penn State explains Inquiry-based Learning. In some cases IBL differs little from Problem-Based Learning. See also Active Learning; Problem-Based Learning.

Instructional Technology simply put is the use of technology to educate in face to face and online classrooms. In the new millennium, we tend to associate instructional technology with computers and mobile devices, but once upon a time, it might have been the overhead projector and a tape deck. Dan Madigan explains, in "The Technology Literate Professoriate: Are we there Yet?" IDEA Paper 43, some of the technologies that we can use to teach. To learn more about instructional technology available at Bloomsburg University check out TALE's Instructional Technology page with links.

Internet Research Skills. Internet Detective is an online tutorial that takes approximately one hour for students to complete. It instructs students on divergent quality of material available on the internet; provides opportunities to complete detective work; offers case studies to test what students have learned; and reviews legal issues.

Inverted Classroom. See Flipped Classroom.

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Jigsaw Activity. If you believe that the best way to learn is to teach it, you should explore this teaching and learning technique. The Jigsaw is a collaborative learning technique that requires students to teach each other different parts of a lesson. Like a puzzle, each student is responsible for a different part, and so full acquisition of knowledge depends upon students working together. A useful introduction to the concept can be found at Jigsaw.org though the intended audience are K-12 teachers. Penn State's Schreyer Institute offers a useful description of the Jigsaw Strategy if you prefer an article targeted to higher education, and Carleton College explains Jigsaws and includes a variety of examples largely relevant to the geosciences examples that can undoubtedly be adapted. See also Collaborative or Cooperative Learning; Concept Mapping; Inquiry-Based Learning;Problem-Based Learning;

Just-in-Time Teaching (JiTT) promises greater student engagement by requiring students to complete "WarmUp" exercises in response to reading assignments, podcasts, lectures completed outside of class. These WarmUps often take the form of quizzes or informal, short writing pieces, which are completed or submitted a few hours before a class meeting through BOLT. The instructor studies the results the WarmUps to ascertain in what areas students have achieved mastery or need assistance. The instructor then adjusts class time to accommodate the learning needs of the students. If students thoughtfully prepare for the WarmUps, that is study the course content, then in-class work becomes more meaningful and engaging. For an introduction, check out Just-in-Time Teaching, web pages sponsored by the Physics Department at IUPUI. Read a short article about Gregor Novak's introduction of JiTT at IUPUI, a project which received National Science Foundation grant money. Many similarities exist between the JiTT methodology and the Flipped or Inverted Classroom.

Laptops. Should students bring laptops to class? Can laptops keep students on task or increase engagement? Or are laptops just a distraction for students to game or disappear into their social networks? Consider reading this recent study about laptop usage and effectiveness in teaching by Sharon Lauricella and Robin Kay, "Assessing Laptop Use in Higher Education Classrooms." Also consult the TALE Library for Linda Nilson and B.E. Weaver, Enhancing Learning with Laptops in the Classroom (2007). See also Digital Nation; Multitasking.

Large Classes. If you think that discussion in large classes is impossible, watch this video clip of Eric Mazur, Harvard Physics Professor, using clickers in a large class. The University of Texas offers a number of useful ideas on how to teach large classes to their faculty, which Bloomsburg University faculty may find helpful. Richard Felder, Department of Chemical Engineering, North Carolina State University shared his approach to "Beating the Numbers Game: Effective Teaching in Large Classes" at conference in 1997. His suggestions are still quite relevant and can easily be updated with the use of clickers. The University of Oregon's Teaching Effectiveness Program offers several links to Large Class Teaching that will also take you to additional external links. See also Student Response Systems (a.k.a. Clickers).

Recommended reading from the TALE Library:
Elisa Carbone, Teaching Large Classes: Tools and Strategies.
Elisa Carbone and J. Greenburg, "Teaching Large Classes: Unpacking the Problem and Responding Creatively," To Improve the Academy (1998): 311-326.
Frank Hoppner, Teaching the Large College Class: A Guidebook for Instructors with Multitudes.
C. A. Stanley and M. E. Porter, eds., Engaging Large Classes: Strategies and Teaching for College Faculty.

Learner-Centered Paradigm Shift. In 1995, Robert Barr and John Tagg suggested that a paradigm shift had occurred in higher education. Their essay, "From Teaching to Learning -- a New Paradigm for Undergraduate Education," maintains that colleges and universities were shifting from an instructor-centered paradigm to a learner-centered paradigm. Randy Bass at Georgetown University examines how digital age and the "participatory culture" of the internet may create teaching and learning opportunities that Barr and Tagg could not have imagined in 1995. Yet, Bass points out that this change will not be easy in "Disrupting Ourselves: The Problem of Learning in Higher Education." A learner-centered approach to teaching is explored in a video entitled "Teaching Teaching and Understanding Understanding" which is worth trying to find through a google search (20 min video). The video, produced by John Biggs, is inspired by his publication, Teaching for Quality Learning at University: What the Student Does (3rd ed.) and available through Andruss' ebrary collection. Terry Doyle is a major proponent of Learner-Centered Teaching and in several publications examines the challenges that faculty face implementing. He also has a blog with resources.

Recommended reading from the TALE Library:

Terry Doyle, Helping Students Learn in a Learner-Centered Environment
Terry Doyle, Learner-Centered Teaching: Putting the Research on Learning into Practice
Terry Doyl and Todd Zakrajsek, The New Science of Learning: How to Learn in Harmony with your Brain
Maryellen Weimer, Learner-Centered Teaching: Five Key Changes to Practice (2nd ed).

Learning. What occurs in the individual brain when s/he learns something? How is the biology of the brain and how it learns relevant to teaching? A summary of various cognitive theories about how we learn by Karl Wirth and Dexter Perkins, "Learning to Learn" may be a useful place to start if you have a short amount of time. Their ideas will help you ponder how you teach. In addition, you might want to consider reading Thomas F. Nelson Laird, et al.'s essay "The Effects of Discipline on Deep Approaches to Student Learning and College Outcomes." In this series of videos, Dr. Stepehn Chew (Samford University, Psychology) outlines "How to get the most out our Studying:" by explaining how learning occurs and suggests useful study strategies. Part 1 of 5, "Beliefs that Make you Fail or Succeed;" Part 2 of 5, "What Students Should Know about How People Learn;" Part 3 of 5, "Cognitive Principles for Optimizing Learning;" Part 4 of 5, "Putting Principles for Learing into Practice;" and Part 5 of 5, "I Blew the Exam, Now What?".

Recommended reading from the TALE Library:
S. Brookfield, The Skillful Teacher: On Technique, Trust, and Responsiveness in the Classroom
(especially chapter 5)
Peter C. Brown, Henry L. Roediger III, and Mark A McDaniel, Make It Stick: The Science of Successful Learning
Chip Heath and Dan Heath, Made To Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die
The Jossey-Bass Reader on the Brain and Learning
. Also available free online: How People Learn
James Zull, The Art of Changing the Brain: Enriching the Practice of Teaching by Exploring the Biology of the Brain.
See also Freshmen; Metacognition.

Learning Partnerships Model See Self-Authorship & the Learning Partnerships Model.

Learning Styles. For many years, some researchers have argued that learning style preferences affect how students learn and how teachers teach. To read a swift rejection of learning styles, read Larry Spence's "Getting Over Learning Styles," while Maryellen Weimer suggests approaching the research from the middle ground: "What's the Story on Learning Styles?" For a more in-depth discussion, consult the meta-study by Harold Pashler and others, "Learning Styles: Concepts and Evidence." Even if the research is problematic, many students and faculty may have preferred learning styles. One quick and easy learning style inventory, that assesses learning as it relates to communication, is the VARK Questionnaire (16 questions!). Anyone can answer the questionnaire and get a report, at no cost, that indicates learning style preferences. Equally important, the site provides help sheets that students can use to develop study habits and discusses the research limitations of the questionnaire. In thinking about learning styles, avoid the temptation of interpreting them as strengths and weaknesses; learning style preferences are just that, preferences. The Index of Learning Styles was formulated by Richard M. Felder and Linda K. Silverman; it has a 44-item questionnaire. Are you interested in taking a personality inventory? Then try the Keirsey Temperament Sorter which offers a free online version called KTS-II which is comparable to Myers-Briggs.

Recommended reading from the TALE Library:
Neil Fleming, Teaching and Learning Styles: VARK Strategies.
Anthony Grasha, Teaching with Style: A Practical Guide to Enhancing Learning by Understanding.

Lecture Capture is an umbrella term referring to lecture content shared with students through video, audio, or digital recording of computer screen activity. Lecture captures can be utilized to create content for students to review or to learn concepts outside of class. In flipped classrooms, faculty provide recorded lectures to disseminate knowledge with the intent of applying it to in-class activities. In addition, screencasting is used to provide content in online courses. Lecture capture software includes but is not limited to digital video recorders, MediaSite, iSpring, Camtasia, Jing, Captivate, Articulate, etc. To learn more about defining features of lecture capture, see Seven Things you Should Know About Lecture Capture (this article expands upon the defining features of lecture capture; the techniques have evolved significantly since it was published). Emily Moore, an instructional designer, suggests several techniques for "Adapting PowerPoint Lectures for online Delivery: Best Practices." See also Screencasting and consult how Just-in-Time Teaching promises to create accountability.

Lecturing is sometimes maligned by advocates of active or constructivist learning, yet effective lecturing still has a place in the university classroom. Tom Angelo, an excellent lecturer, Professor of Higher Education and Director of the University Teaching Development Centre at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand, talks about Lecturing for Learning in the following YouTube clips: What Lectures are Good For; Attention Span; Encouraging Students to Prepare; Lecture Notes. Contemplate how to polish up your lectures or increase student attention by reading up on the topic. If you do not have time for a book, you might want to read William Cashin's "Effective Lecturing," IDEA Paper 46. A recent documentary by American Public Radioworks questions the value of lecturing in "Don't Lecture Me." Paul Corrigan discusses the question of "To Lecture or Not to Lecture?" in The Atlantic (23 December 2013).

Recommended reading from the TALE Library:
Donald Bligh, What's the Use of Lectures?
S. Brookfield, The Skillful Teacher: On Technique, Trust, and Responsiveness in the Classroom (especially chapter 6)
D. M. Enerson, et al., The Penn State Teacher I & II (portions).
Linda Nilson, Teaching at its Best (portions).
Wilbert McKeachie, McKeachie's Teaching Tips (portions).
See also Clickers; Large Classes; PowerPoint.

Library Research Skills. Students need to improve their library research skills and overall information literacy; it is a responsibility that faculty in the classroom and library share. Watch this presentation by David Magolis and Linda Neyer, What they Know: Information and Research Skills of BU Students to learn more. You may also want to read the following articles: "Encouraging Critical Thinking in Student Library Research" by Mardi Mahaffy and "Information-Seeking Behavior in Generation Y Students" by Angela Weiler, then ponder how faculty can contribute to improving students' research skills.

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Metacognition is reflection upon how we learn, in other words "knowing about knowing" or "cognition about cognition". Can we help students reflect upon their learning process? In doing so, we might make them more effective learners. To learn more about how students' intellectual development influences their ability to reflect upon their learning, read Robert Kloss, "A Nudge is Best," in which he describes William Perry's Phases of Development. Sharon Kossack, et al, discuss " The Usefulness of Self-Assessment in Higher Education Courses," Interested in encouraging students to contemplate where they are at in their intellectual development? Try the Perry Game, an activity that encourages students to ponder what learning means. See also Learning; Freshmen.

Midterm Evaluations. See Student Evaluations.

Millennial Generation. BU Faculty Ethan Krupp, Theater, and Christian Grandzol, Business discuss the What the Text is Up with my Students? Millennial generation refers to individuals born since 1982 (a.k.a. Generation Y, Net Generation, Next Generation, Echo Boomers). We should be cautious about labeling a generation as sharing a particular group of characteristics; students should be treated as individuals. Yet we need to develop an awareness of how the information revolution may be affecting our students, their study skills, abilities, productivity, etc. These YouTube Videos, Information R/evolution, The Machine is Us/ing Us (Final Version) and A Vision of Students Today by Cultural Anthropologist Michael Wesch will give you something to ponder, but no answers.

Mobile Learning. This term refers to the use of SmartPhones and other web 2.0 technologies to teach and learn. Thomas Cochrane and Roger Bateman discuss the advantages of smart phones in "Smartphones give you Wings."

Motivation. How do we motivate our students? We cannot, but we can create a learning environment that increases intrinsic motivation. Consider Dan Pink's lecture "On the Surprising Science of Motivation" on how autonomy is essential. The lecture is geared to the business world but still relevant to education. An essay by Carol Gross Davis, "Motivating Students," suggests some techniques that faculty might employ to create motivating conditions. In addition, you might want to read Marilla Svinicki's "Student Goal Orientation, Motivation, and Learning," IDEA Paper 41. Read how Katerhine Robertson, a biology professor, "Motivat[es] Students with Teaching Techniques that Establish Relevance, Promote Autonomy." Kenneth Alford and Tyler Griffin offer suggestions on how to increase relevance in "Teaching Unprepared Students: The Importance of Increasing Relevance." In a blog by Deborah Miller Fox, "Education and Consumerism," she engages students in a discussion of what the consumer paradigm means in the classroom setting.

Multiple-Choice Exams. See Writing Test Questions.

Multiple Intelligence Theory. Listen to Howard Gardner's brief explanation of Multiple Intelligence theory and its implication for education. This YouTube video is approximately 8 minutes long.

Multitasking. No such thing exists, but we do switch tasks and we are capable of surface- and deep-learning. Watch this explanation on YouTube, Multitasking or Multi-distracting? Gary Small, Professor of Psychiatry and Aging, UCLA, describes a related phenomenon, Partial Continuous Attention (PCA), which may more accurately explains what many of us do. In the second video clip he suggests a couple of ways to handle PCA. Would you be interested in conducting a brief experiment with your students about multi-tasking? David Crenshaw offers a short video exercise which takes less than five minutes. Have your students complete the exercise in class and discuss the results; provide each student with a blank piece of paper with three lines drawn horizontally. See also Digital Nation; Freshmen; Learning; Metacognition.

Net Generation. Who is the Net Generation? What are their technology and learning expectations? What are the implications for teaching? Consider reading Educating the Net Generation, an EDUCAUSE E-Book, a free publication with multiple contributors. See also Digital Nation; Millennial Generation.

Note-Taking. We can no longer assume that students have note-taking or note-making skills. Here Maryellen Weimer offers "Tips for Developing Students' Note-taking Skills." In this Prezi, Derek Bruff makes a case for "Sktechnotes in the Classroom: A More Visual Approach to Notetaking."

Objective Exams. See Writing Test Questions.

Online Courses (a.k.a. Distance Education): Teaching online courses requires considerable preparation. The Instructional Media and Design Center provides assistance on using BOLT to teach online. Teaching online can occur synchronously and asynchronously. Paul Creasman's "Considerations in Online Course Design," IDEA Paper 52, might be a good place to start. For additional assistance, several faculty at Bloomsburg University have experience. Joneen Lowman, formerly in Audiology and Speech Pathology, and Michelle Ficca, Nursing, share their experiences in this MediaSite presentation: The Trials and Tribulations of Designing Distance Education Courses.

Recommended reading from the TALE Center:
Patricia Comeaux, ed., Assessing Online Learning.
R. Garrison and N. D. Vaughan, Blended Learning in Higher Education: Framework, Principles, and Guidelines.
R. Pallof and K. Pratt, Building Online Learning Communities: Effective Strategies for the Virtual Classroom. See also TALE's Instructional Technology.

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Participation. See Discussion Method to learn more about how to promote student discussion in class.

Plagiarism. Many of us are confronted with cases of plagiarism, some of which are committed intentionally and maliciously, and some are unintentional, perhaps due to a failure to understand the differences between authentic paraphrase and summarizing. Read Carol Thompson's, "Unintended Lessons: Plagiarism and the University," who explores reasons that plagiarism occurs and suggests solutions. Robert Harris, whose PhD in history, outlines some useful strategies for awareness, prevention, and detection in "Anti-Plagiarism Strategies for Research Papers." You may want to visit Clemson University's website, International Center for Academic Integrity for educational resources, links, etc. The Joint Information Systems Committee, a British organization that promotes responsible and ethical digital research recommends PlagiarismAdvice.org with links to resources for faculty. Of course, faculty should inform themselves about the University's Academic Integrity Policy: PRP 3512. Here is the link to the Bloomsburg University's resources for faculty: Academic Integrity that includes a link to the report form. Through BOLT's dropbox feature, you can set up Turnitin for "plagiarism detection," yet to call it plagiarism detection is a bit misleading and may give you a fall sense of security that you will catch all plagiarists. You, and your student if you allow them to see the report, will receive a similarity report. A high percentage of similarity does not inherently prove plagiarism; likewise, a low percentage may point to plagiarism. What is more, students may revise purchased or borrowed papers to reduce the amount of similarity. Finally, not all students who commit plagiarism may be doing so intentionally. Some do not know the difference between authentic and inauthentic paraphrasing while taking notes or composing essays. Turnitin sponsors a website about plagiarism that you and your students might find useful. We probably cannot eliminate plagiarism and other related violations of the academic integrity, but we can develop assignments that might reduce the likelihood. Equally important, we need to help students learn the difference between authentic and inauthentic paraphrasing and engage them in conversations about honorable conduct in the academy -- a note in our syllabus about academic integrity may not be enough. Catherine Bronquist Browning, who teaches English at UC Berkeley when this essay was published, routinely makes the subject a part of her course: Ethical Engagement: Practical Solutions for Addressing Plagiarism in the Writing Classroom. Contact the BU Writing Center or its director, Ted Roggenbuck, for ways to help students accurately credit language and ideas in their written work.

Podcasting is the new millennium's answer to the tape recorder or the record album. Sheila Scutter, et al, explore the potential advantages and disadvantages in podcasting and suggest best practices in "How do Students Use Podcasts to Support Learning."

Portfolios (Students). Requiring students to maintain a portfolio of their educational achievements offers the potential for self-reflection. Portfolios may be used as a framework to scaffold a project, to assess course-level work, or to measure progress through a program. Subsequently, portfolios may also provide direct measures of student learning for departments seeking evidence for outcomes assessment. If you do not have time for a book, read John Zubizarreta, "The Learning Portfolio: A Powerful Idea for Significant Learning," IDEA Paper 44. Virginia Tech, which actively promotes ePortfolio, offers a number of useful resources. Nancy Wozniak, Stony Brook University, provides a number of useful sources about ePortfolio;her list of suggestions for using ePortfolios to scaffold a course project may inspire. In this collection of essays edited by Katherine Wills and Rich Rice, learn how faculty from a variety of disciplines have utilized ePortfolios: ePortfolio Performance Support Systems: Constructing, Presenting, and Assessing Portfolios. Jon Mueller, North Central College (Naperville, IL) provides a user-friendly introduction to portfolios and best practices within the context of authentic assessment. Molly Marnella and Cherie Roberts share research into their student perceptions of ePortfolios in this TALE Seminar from 10 September 2014.

Recommended reading from the TALE Library:
P. Belanoff and M. Dickinson, eds. Portfolios: Process and Product.
Linda Nilson, Teaching at its Best: A Research-Based Resource for College Education.
Linda Suskie: Assessing Student Learning: A Common Sense Guide (chapter 13)
Barbara Walvoord and Virginia Anderson, Effective Grading: A Tool for Learning and Assessment

PowerPoint Lectures. Need help pondering how to use PowerPoint effectively in your teaching. Read Karl Kapp, "How to Avoid Death by PowerPoint: Creating Powerful Presentations" (February 2012) or log into the PASSHE Virtual Conference 2012 Archived Session and look for Karl's recorded lecture. For a quick tip sheet, read "Using PowerPoint for Better Learning" from the Tennessee Teaching and Learning Center. Resources for Teaching Well with PowerPoint at the Kaneb Center, University of Notre Dame offers a variety of instructional tips. A funny video about avoiding bad PowerPoint slides. Some technology experts discourage the use of bullet points; here is John Orlando's suggestions with links to additional resources: Improve your PowerPoint Design with one Simple Rule. Recently, David Walker, Early Childhood and Adolescent Education at Bloomsburg University, held a TALE seminar entitled, Navigating the Land Mines of Power Point in which he suggests some alternative presentation software available on the internet. See also Clickers; Lectures.

Prezi allows you or your students to create "zooming presentations" through the website prezi.com; you can choose between the free account or upgrade to a paid license. Prezi offers tutorials on how to create presentations. Prezi's single "canvas" may be particularly helpful in telling stories, presenting lectures, creating timelines, and concept mapping. Prezi does have its limits, including the potential to create motion sickness (seriously). To learn more, see Michael Coffta's presentation comparing Prezi to PowerPoint, which he created using Prezi.

Problem-Based Learning is a student-centered strategy in which the faculty role is to create "problems" that students must solve through collaborative efforts. The problems are "open-ended, ill-defined, ill-structured" and intriguing. The faculty member facilitates learning by providing additional information or more mystery when students have reached some resolution or an impasse. PBL is based on a learner-centered paradigm and constructivist theories of how learning occurs. McMaster University (Canada) popularized this approach. Samford University's Center for Teaching, Learning and Scholarship guides faculty in Problem-Based Learning, which might be a good place to start online. What is more, you should explore the University of Delaware's resources on Problem-Based Learning which includes a PBL Clearing House (requires registration). By the way, critics of PBL argue that the novice learners can experience cognitive overload and that intellectually immature students (e.g. dualists and relativists) need more structure in the early stages of learning a new discipline.

Recommended reading from the TALE Library:
Kenneth France, "Problem-based Service-Learning: Rewards and Challenges with Undergraduates," To Improve the Academy (2004): 239-250.
Richard Gale, "Point without Limits: Individual Inquiry, Collaborative Investigation, and Collective Scholarship," To Improve the Academy (2008): 39-52.
Carolin Kerber, Exploring Research Based Teaching: New Directions for Teaching and Learning No. 107.
Katherine Smith, "Faculty Development that Transforms the Undergraduate Experience at a Research University," To Improve the Academy (2001): 193-204.
See also Active Learning; Team-Based Learning.

Productive Faculty. This is a workshop recording of Susan Robison's Fall 2010 Peak Performance Practices of Highly Effective and Happy Faculty: Living Well While Doing Good. If you don't have time to watch, then you need to make the time! Robison also maintains a website called Professor Distressor. Are you looking for tips on how to get writing every day? Check out "The DRAW method" explained at ProfHacker blog posting by Billie Hara, a lecturer in the department of English at the University of Texas, Arlington.

Promotion. See Evaluations, Tenure and Promotion.

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Reading. To contemplate ways to encourage students to read, consult this Faculty Focus collection of essays, 11 Strategies for Getting Students to Read What's Assigned. Eric Hobson, in "Getting Students to Read: Fourteen Tips,"discusses challenges to getting students to read and offers ways to overcome the challenges. Cristina Mathews provides her students with a bookmark. You can create 4.25 x 11 bookmarks for your students by making double-sided copies on heavier cardstock and then cut the long way. Mortimer Adler offers the following advise in a chapter excerpt from How to read a book. Cristina Mathews, Department of English at BU, recommends several articles:

David Carkenord, "Motivating Students to Read Journal Articles," has students write index-card-length summaries of the reading for (limited) extra credit; they are then able to use those cards during tests.

Patricia Connor-Greene, "Assessing and Promoting Student Learning," suggests replacing periodic tests with daily ten-minute essay quizzes that also form the basis for class discussion; gives useful specifics about how she did this; reports greatly improved class discussion as a result.

Steven Gump, "Demystifying Response Papers," reports students visiting the writing center confused about what a response paper is; gives suggestions for defining response paper for students; includes clarifying the purpose and suggests how to respond to students' responses.

Michael Perri, "Refocusing on Reading," argues that professors must teach active reading and offers examples from textbook and primary sources; useful for subject areas other than history.

Claire Sibold, "Rules of Engagement," offers detailed suggestions for incorporating pre-reading, during-reading, and post-reading strategies, with particularly valuable suggestions for pre-reading.

Hazel White, "Nursing Instructors Must Also Teaching Reading and Study Skills," a broad article giving suggestions for direct instruction aimed at developing student skills in: content reading, note taking, critical reading and thinking, decision making and problem solving, and information technology. It concludes with sections on referring to reading specialists and on selecting appropriate learning activities.

John Sappington, et al. "Two Studies of Reading Compliance Among College Students," examines how quizzes increase reading compliance.

Rubrics. Rubric Basics (approximately 12 minutes) introduces you to the fundamentals of rubric creation, how to get started, see select examples, and be introduced to best practices. The TALE Director has many examples of rubrics that might facilitate the creation of your own rubrics or can be adapted to your needs. The Shreyer Institute at Pennsylvania State University provides some useful information and samples about Rubrics. Deandra Little, English, Teaching Resource Center, University of Virginia offers an introduction to "Grading with Rubrics: Developing a Fair and Efficient Assessment Tool." The Association of American Colleges and Universities provides makes several rubrics available that assess a variety of "Intellectual and Practical Skills" and "Personal and Social Responsibility." The AACU's VALUE (Valid Assessment of Learning in Undergraduate Education) Rubrics can be downloaded from their site; you just need to provide your email address.

Recommended reading from the TALE Library:
Dannelle D. Stevens and Antonia J. Levi, Introduction to Rubrics: An Assessment Tool to Save Grading Time, Convey Effective Feedback and Promote Student Learning.
D Williams, et al, "Effective Peer Evaluation in Learning Teams," To Improve the Academy (2004): 251-267.
See also Grading.

Screencasting is a digital recording of a computer screen which can include software demonstrations, internet links, narration, and a variety of testing options. The screencasts can then be made available to students to review content or to learn concepts outside of class. In flipped classrooms, faculty provide screencasts to disseminate knowledge with the intent of applying it to in-class activities. In addition, screencasting is used to provide content in online courses. Lecture capture software includes but is not limited to iSpring, Camtasia, Jing, Captivate, Articulate, etc. To learn more, read the notes from Michael F. Ruffini's TALE presentation (7 November 2012), or check out his website, The Teachercast Academy. See also Lecture Capture and Just-in-Time Teaching.

Recommended reading:
Michael F. Ruffini, "Screencasting to Engage Learning" (Educause article)
Michael F. Ruffini, "Creating a PowerPoint Screencast Using Camtasia Studio" (Educause article)

Self-Authorship & the Learning Partnerships Model "...Self-authorship is considered an integrated theory of college student development with implications for the classroom, course development, academic advising, resident life, and almost any area of teh college experience. ... The ELarning Partnerships Model suggests appraoches to helping students develop a sense of 'internal authorship' where 'the internal voice moves to the foregroun,' taking precedence over external sources of authority and information (Baxter Magolda, 2011). The LPM includes three assumptions that challenge students' dependence on authority and three principles that foster the development of self-authorship." To learn more, read Teaching Tip # 2: Self-Authorship and the Learning Partnerships Model, written by Denise Davidson, Counseling and College Students Affairs, Bloomsburg University.

Service Learning is "a teaching and learning strategy that integrates meaningful community service with instruction and reflection to enrich the learning experience, teach civic responsibility, and strengthen communities." (National Service Learning Clearinghouse). To learn more about Service Learning at Bloomsburg University, visit the SOLVE Office.

Recommended reading from the TALE Library:
Rona J. Karasik, "Whispers and Sighs: The Unwritten Challenges of Service-Learning," To Improve the Academy 23 (2005): 236-253.
L. Michaelsen and M. McCord, "Teaching Business by Doing Business: An Interdisciplinary Faculty-Friendly Approach," To Improve the Academy (2007): 238-253.

Student Evaluations. The SlideCast, Mid-Term Evaluations (approximately 12 minutes), briefly explains the limitations of end-of-semester evaluations and the advantages of conducting student evaluations of your teaching at least once during the semester. You will learn practical suggestions on how to conduct evaluations; most evaluations take only a few minutes! Stephen Benton and William Cashin offer a summary of research about "Student Ratings of Teaching," IDEA Paper 50. To learn more about a variety of topics related to student evaluations (including their usefulness, bias, and research methodology, check out the eBook: Effective Evaluation of Teaching: A Guide for Faculty and Administrators, published by The Society for the Teaching of Psychology.

Recommended reading from the TALE Library:
Thomas Angelo and K. Patricia Cross, Assessment Techniques: A Handbook for College Teachers.
M. Snooks and K. Williamson, "From SGID and GIFT to BBQ: Streamling Midterm Evaluations to Improve Teaching and Learning," To Improve the Academy (2004): 110-124.

Student Response Systems (or Clickers) can provide immediate feedback to the instructor about what students are thinking in your classroom. How to Use Clickers Effectively (11 minutes) shows how they are used at University of Colorado-Boulder. You may also want to monitor the blog by Derek Bruff, who is a senior lecturer at Vanderbilt University's Department of Mathematics, Teaching with Classroom Response Systems. At the Center for Teaching, Vanderbilt University, Bruff offers some instructional advice for using clickers. Bruff's book, Teaching with Classroom Responses Systems, can be borrowed from the Instructional Media and Design Center (233 and 234 Andruss Library). Bruff's "Introductory Lecture" (22 minutes) and "Backchannel" lecture (14 minutes) posted on 22 November 2010, hosted by the University of Bath's Engaging Students Through In-Class Technologies conference are worth watching. Of course, a number of faculty on BU's campus use clickers; watch video in which Toni Trumbo Bell, Chemistry and Biochemistry, explains how she uses clickers to administer quiz questions and exams. Eric Mazur, Harvard Physics Professor, demonstrates the use of clickers and active learning in a large class. The University of Colorado Science Education Initiative and the University of British Columbia Carl Wieman Science Education Initiative provide faculty with The Clicker Resource Guide, which emphasizes effective teaching strategies essential to effective use of student response systems. In addition, they provide links to several videos dedicated to Clickers in the Science Classroom. The Instructional Media and Design Center offers support as well. If you need "Low-tech alternatives to clickers," check out this blogpost by Heather M. Whitney, assistant professor of Physics at Wheaton College (Illinois). The low-tech approach allows you to experiment with how you can increase student engagement by getting instant feedback by quizzing or surveying students. Leslee Shepard, a professor of nursing at Winston Salem State University, shares how she uses clickers to generate debate. A related topic that you should explore in using "clickers": successful methods of promoting discussion.

Student Veterans. Students face unique challenges when they return to campus after active military duty or are deployed while attending university. Learn more about these challenges and their legal rights. Consider reading the following article, "From Combat to Campus: Voices of Student Veterans," by David DiRamio, et al. In addition, watch the following video by Mark Bauman, Called to Serve: the Military Mobilization of Undergraduates. In Fall 2010, Bloomsburg University Magazine devoted its volume to BU students, faculty, and staff, who have served in the military. A bonus feature of the magazine, the university listed Veterans Among Us, which may be a useful resource for current students with military experience.

Syllabi and Course Design. Natalie Houston, English Professor at the University of Houston (really!) offers a review essay with links to recent articles relevant to Syllabi and Course Design found at the Chronicle of Higher Education's ProfHacker. It should help you ponder a variety of topics while you are contemplating your syllabi. If you really want to revitalize your courses, study L. Dee Fink's Creating Significant Learning Experiences. Fink's book is part of genre that advocates a backward design approach. If you do not have time to study Fink's book, check out his essay, "Integrated Course Design," IDEA Paper 42 in combination with his Guide to Course Redesign. Another title that you might consider reading, Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe, Understanding by Design (2nd edition, 2005); though the intended audience are high school teachers, they offer a clear understanding of the backward design model. In the development of online courses, read William Horton's E-Learning by Design. The National Center for Academic Transformation provides a model to redesign courses especially introductory courses with multiple sections; the Center has received funding from Pew Charitable Trusts, FIPSE and the Gate Foundation. TALE Teaching Tip #1: Syllabi Best Practices offers suggestions and a list of policies that faculty should consult when writing individual course syllabi.

Recommended reading from the TALE Library:
L. Dee Fink, Creating Significant Learning Experiences: An Integrated Approach to Designing College Courses.
L. Dee Fink, "Higher-Level Learning: The First-Step toward More Significant Learning," To Improve the Academy (2001): 113-130.
Linda Nilson, The Graphic Syllabus and the Outcomes Map: Communicating Your Course.
Michael J. Strada, "The Case for Sophisticated Course Syllabi," To Improve the Academy (2001): 205-216.
D. M. Enerson, et al., The Penn State Teacher I & II (portions).
Linda Nilson, Teaching at its Best (portions).
Wilbert McKeachie, McKeachie's Teaching Tips (portions).

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Taxonomies. To write learning goals, student learning objectives, and student learning outcomes, see Bloom's Taxonomies and Its Revisions.

Teaching Philosophies. Have you thought about what your teaching philosophy is? How it influences your pedagogical choices? How it may shape the way you think about learning? Teaching philosophies should not simply be relegated to the job search process; they not only shape our teaching choices but can be used to shape our teaching narratives in the process of performance evaluations. Robert Leamnson writes, "At first glance a philosophy developed entirely out of experience might seem a good thing. ... [But] a philosophy that develops in a reactive way and completely out of experience runs the risk of producing a pedagogy that merely accommodates students' felt needs." (p.3, 5) Whether or not you are at the beginning, middle, or nearing the end of your career, we can always benefit from pondering our philosophies through study. Do you want some help reflecting upon your teaching? Take the Teaching Perspectives Inventory. The University Center for the Advancement of Teaching at The Ohio State University provides guidelines and sample statements of philosophy. This short essay, Strategies for Writing Better Teaching Philosophy Statements, might help you ponder. A more lengthy discussion that includes tips on how to write is available in this special report from Faculty Focus: Philosphy of Teaching Statements. To start thinking about your teaching philosophy consider the following questions: Six Questions that will bring your Teaching Philosophy into Focus.

Recommended reading from the TALE Library:
Ken Bain, What the Best College Teachers Do.
Stephen Brookfield, The Skillful Teacher: On Technique, Trust, and Responsiveness in the Classroom.
Robert Leamnson, Thinking about Teaching and Learning: Developing Habits of Learning with First Year College and University Students.
Parker J. Palmer, The Courage to Teach: Exploring the Inner Landscape of a Teacher's Life.
R. Liesveld and J. Miller, Teach with Your Strengths: How Great Teachers Inspire Students.
Louis Schmier, Random Thoughts: The Humanity of Teaching.

Teaching Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). Carleton College matinains the Science Education Resource Center; it "works to improve education through projects that support educators. This may be a useful starting point for STEM faculty. Among the projects that SERC supports is Starting Point: Teaching Entry Level Geosciencethat offers a variety of instructional methods that could easily be adapted to other disciplines.

Teaching Writing is not just for composition teachers. Consider reading Gottschalk and Hjortshoj (see below) for techniques that faculty from all disciplines can adopt to teach writing. John Bean, listed below, offers countless ideas on using formal and informal writing assignments to increase student engagement. If you do not have time for a book, you might want to read, David Smit, "Strategies to Improve Student Writing," IDEA Paper 48; or Ted Roggenbuck, TALE Teaching Tip #3: Assigning Writing. If you want to think about how to encourage students to set forth a convincing argument, read about the Toulmin model and see how two BU faculty have adapted it to their assignments. You may also want to look for ideas on Purdue's OWL (Online Writing Lab) for Non-Purdue Instructors and Students (sometimes the server can be a bit slow). If you are interested in Writing Across the Discipline, a great place to begin exploring this approach to improving student writing is the WAC Clearinghouse at Colorado State University. The Conference on College Composition and Communication (CCCC) provides resources "for researching and teaching composition, from writing to new Media." Faculty Focus has collected several essays providing tips on Keys to Designing Effective Writing and Research Assignments.

Recommended reading from the TALE Library:
Patrick Bahls, Student Writing in the Quantitative Disciplines: A Guide for College Faculty.
John Bean, Engaging Ideas: The Professor's Guide to Integrating Writing, Critical Thinking, and Active Learning in the Classroom.
Katherine Gottschalk and Keith Hjortshoj,The Elements of Teaching Writing: A Resource for Instructors in All Disciplines.

Team-Based Learning. A short QuickTime Video introduces you to Team-Based Learning principles (12 minutes) in practice at University of Texas at Austin and interviews faculty and students about their experiences. The producer is Dr. Michael Sweet, Faculty Development Specialist at UT-Austin. Give it a minute to download. Team-based learning in medical education is highlighted in this video TeamLEAD curriculum at Duke-NUS (9 minutes); note that individual accountability is created through readiness assessment tests that are completed before team learning begins. Team-based Learning Collaborative is an excellent website to explore for how to get started with TBL, books, and videos that you can watch to learn more about implementing TBL. One of the challenges of TBL is getting students to work together and not simply divide and delegate the workload. Rebecca Pope-Ruark and three students from Elon University discuss how Scrum, an iterative design framework for complext software development projects, brought about genuine team effort in Let's Scrum. Want to learn a technique that will allow for group testing as part of the TBL strategy? Check out IF-AT (Immediate Feedback Assessment Technique) forms.

Recommended Reading from the TALE Library:
L. K. Michaelson, et al., Team-Based Learning: A Transformative Use of Small Groups in College Teaching.
Harvey Charles Foyle, ed., Interactive Learning in Higher Education Classroom: Cooperative, Collaborative, and Active Learning Strategies.
See also Active Learning; Problem-Based Learning.

Team-Teaching. Looking for ideas on how to prepare to team-teach? The Center for Teaching at Vanderbilt University offers suggestions here. This Stanford University's Center for Teaching and Learning describes the benefits and challenges of team-teaching. Mary Jane Eisen and Elizabeth J. Tisdell discuss "Team Teaching: The Learning Side of the Teaching-Learning Equation" in this volume of Essays on Teaching Excellence (vol. 14, no. 6, 2002-2003). Sue Dinitz and several more authors discuss their experience in the context of team-teaching a living and learning community for freshmen at the University of Vermont in their essay: "The Odd Couples: Interdisciplinary Team Teaching." Amanda Little and Anne Hoel at University of Wisconsin-Stout describe a business-biology team teaching experience (2011).

Tenure. See Evaluations, Tenure and Promotion.

Textbooks. What is the role of the textbook in your teaching? What factors should you take into account when selecting a textbook and deciding upon the role it plays in teaching content? MaryEllen Weimer makes some introductory comments that you might want to consider in her blog, "What's Your Relationship with your Textbook?"

Twitter is a social media tool that limits content to 140 characters per message. It can be accessed with an internet connection through any mobile devise or desktop computer. How might it be used to teach? Bill Egan (Bloomsburg University, BE and ITM Department) shows how to Use Twitter as an Alternative to Discussion Forums.

Webquests are "an inquiry-oriented lesson format in which most or all the information that learners work with comes from the web." San Diego State University has led the initiative to create an information hub for how to create and share webquests at WebQuest.org. Consider creating WebQuests or requiring your students to create a WebQuest.

Writing Across the Discipline is based on the belief that students learn to think through by writing through problems, issues, and topics taught in all disciplines. in addition, students should learn to write for a variety of audiences inside and outside of their majors or disciplines. Subsequently, teaching writing should not be the sole responsibility of English department faculty who bear responsibility for introductory composition courses. To learn more about Writing Across the Disciplines, often closely associated with Writing in the Disciplines (WID) see the WAC Clearinghouse at Colorado State University.

Writing Test Questions. Brigham Young University provides useful guidelines to writing "Multiple Choice Test Items". The guidelines explore advantages and disadvantages for using multiple-choice items, measuring higher-level objectives, defines the variety of items, and best practices for writing multiple-choice test items. John D. Painter, at UNC-Chapel Hill, wrote "Writing and Reviewing Assessment Items: Guidelines and Tips." Readers will find tips on planning, development, and writing exam questions. The University of Tennesseee at Chatanooga's Teaching Resource Center dedicates several web pages to Test Design (including True/False, Matching, Multiple Choice, Short Answer, Essay, Oral Exams, Student Portfolios, and Performance). Chesapeake College's Faculty Development Institute dedicates several webpages to Testing. The National Board of Medical Examiners "Constructing Written Test Questions for the Basic and Clinical Sciences" may be of particular help to faculty in nursing, health, and exercise sciences. The University of Leeds describes several types of questions and how to write them at Integrating Technology into Assessment.

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