Fall 2010 Western Civ Final Exam Questions:
You will be given one of the following questions on your final exam. The only way to be prepared for the exam is to prepare for both questions.
You can use one sheet of paper (front and back) for pre-prepared organizational outlines. The organizational outline can include “facts” (1-2 words phrases, names, and dates). It can include exact quotations from the textbook or documents (in quotation marks) for use in each essay. But, except for quotations that are in quotation marks, it cannot contain the text of phrases and sentences repeated in your answers--that will be considered cheating.
Your answers must be essays organized in coherent paragraphs.
A. An introductory paragraph that states your main points—in other words, your first paragraph should present the basic answer to the question.
B. Each body paragraphs must discuss and explain the evidence that helps answer the question Each body paragraph must do the following:
1. Focus on one specific example or “case” and explain that example as fully as possible.
2. Discuss the evidence regarding that example. That means that you have to refer to specifics. You are expected to use specifics from the lecture notes, the textbook, and the Brophy document reader.
3. If there is a document from Brophy relevant to the example in the paragraph, then you must discuss that document! It is not good enough to repeat generalizations from the lecture notes or the textbook. Again, whenever it is relevant, I expect you to provide and explain specific examples from assigned documents.
4. Clearly explain what the specific evidence means. It is not good enough to repeat something—a parrot can repeat words. You have to explain what the examples or evidence means and how it answers the question.
C. A concluding paragraph that summarizes your main point in the essay and responds to any “hints” for the conclusion that are provided in the wording of the question.
HERE ARE THE TWO POSSIBLE QUESTIONS:
1) From the 300s through the 1500s, the Catholic Church sought to define what was “unquestionably true” Christian doctrine (dogma) and what was “false teaching” (heresy). At the same time, other Christian religious thinkers proposed ways of understanding god and faith that conflicted with the “official” doctrine of the Church.
Explain the main issues at the heart of each of the following conflicts over “dogma vs heresy.” Be sure to explain both “sides” (the arguments made by people the Church defined as “heretics” and the arguments made by the Church in response to those “heresies”):
(a) the Arian heresy in the 300s (at least one paragraph on this);
(b) the Waldensian heresy in the 1100s (at least one paragraph on this);
(c) the heresy of the Lollards in the 1300s (at least one paragraph on this);
(d) the controversy over the ideas of Jan Hus in the early 1400s (at least one paragraph on this);
(e) the controversy over the ideas of Martin Luther in the early 1500s (at least two paragraphs on this).
[Notice that, in addition to information in the textbook and the lecture notes, there are at least four relevant documents here: Jan Hus, from The Church; Martin Luther, 95 Theses; Martin Luther, “Statement of Grievances”; and the Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent.]
In the last paragraph of your essay, explain any common themes that link the views of the Waldensians, the Lollards, the Hussites, and the Lutherans.
2) One of the ongoing conflicts that shaped Western civilization between the late Roman period through the Reformation was the struggle for dominance between secular rulers (princes, kings, emperors) and the Catholic Church hierarchy (in particular, that of the Popes). Secular rulers, building on the traditions of classical Rome, often claimed that they had the powers over the Church as well as over the population, since god had “chosen” them to rule as protectors of Christendom. Popes (and various Catholic theologians) argued that Christ had put the Church under the command of the “Apostolic See” (the Papacy), and that spiritual authority must always take precedence to secular authority.
Discuss and explain at least two arguments made by secular authorities (princes, kings, emperors) about the secular ruler’s power in relationship to the power of the Church and at least two arguments by Popes (or other theologians) about papal power in relation to kings and emperors.
a) one example (at least one paragraph) must be from the late Roman period—the 300s and 400s CE (consult chapter 6 of the text and the Brophy reader; consult lecture notes)
b) one example (at least one paragraph) must be from the early Medieval period, between 500 and 1000 CE—for example, the views of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian, or Emperor Charlemagne (consult chapter 7 of the text and the Brophy reader; consult lecture notes)
c) at least one example (at least two paragraphs) must be from the High Middle Ages, between 1000 and 1300 CE. You can chose to use 2 examples from this period if you wish (consult chapter 9 of the text and the Brophy reader and the week 10 and 11 lecture notes). I expect you to explain the “story” behind the important arguments made in this period (e.g., the Investiture Controversy)
d) you also can use the conflict between the Church and Henry VIII of England as an example for the Reformation period (chapter 13 of text/ week 14 lecture notes)
[In addition to the lecture notes and textbook, possible relevant documentsare: The Theodosian Law Code; Einhard on Charlemagne; Letter from Gregory VII; Papal Bull of Pope Boniface]
In the last paragraph of your essay, explain any common themes that link the arguments of the secular rulers; also, explain any common themes that link the arguments of the Church leaders.