James Tomlinson
   Communication Studies

   Marcus Tullius Cicero

Review the following per instructions in class - for our discussion of the use of language in speeches/political
advertising/argumentation.  Consider how each has a use in appealing to the human heart/mind/ear.  Can you find ways of employing any of these Rhetorical Devices in your presentations?  Be prepared to create examples of your own - in your group assignment

Alliteration: repetition of the initial consonant sounds beginning several words in sequence.
"....we shall not falter, we shall not fail."  
President G.W. Bush Address to Congress following 9-11-01 Terrorist Attacks.
"Let us go forth to lead the land we love." President J. F. Kennedy, Inaugural 1961

"Veni, vidi, vici."  Julius Caesar  (I came, I saw, I conquered)

Assonance: repetition of the same vowel sounds in words close to each other.

"Thy kingdom come, thy will be done."     The Lord's Prayer

Anadiplosis: ("doubling back") the rhetorical repetition of one or several words; specifically, repetition of a word that ends one clause at the beginning of the next.
"Men in great place are thrice servants: servants of the sovereign or state; servants of fame; and servants of business."   Francis Bacon
Anaphora: the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive phrases, clauses or lines.

"We shall not flag or fail. We shall go on to the end. We shall fight in France, we shall fight on the seas and oceans, we shall fight with growing confidence and growing strength in the air, we shall defend our island, whatever the cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we shall fight in the hills. We shall never surrender."
British Prime Minister Winston Churchill

Antistrophe: repetition of the same word or phrase at the end of successive clauses.

"In 1931, ten years ago, Japan invaded Manchukuo -- without warning. In 1935, Italy invaded Ethiopia -- without warning. In 1938, Hitler occupied Austria -- without warning. In 1939, Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia -- without warning. Later in 1939, Hitler invaded Poland -- without warning. And now Japan has attacked Malaya and Thailand -- and the United States --without warning."
President Franklin D. Roosevelt

Antithesis: opposition, or contrast of ideas or words in a balanced or parallel construction.

"Extremism in defense of liberty is no vice, moderation in the pursuit of justice is no virtue."
Barry Goldwater - Republican Candidate for President 1964
"Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more".
Brutus in:  " Julius Caesar" by William Shakespeare
Aporia: expression of doubt (often feigned) by which a speaker appears uncertain as to what he should think, say, or do.
"Then the steward said within himself, 'What shall I do?"    Bible:  Luke 16

Apostrophe: a sudden turn from the general audience to address a specific group or person or personified abstraction absent or present.

"For Brutus, as you know, was Caesar's angel.
Judge, O you gods, how dearly Caesar loved him".
Mark Antony in 'Julius Caesar' - William Shakespeare

Asyndeton: lack of conjunctions between coordinate phrases, clauses, or words.

"We shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardships, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty."
     J. F. Kennedy, Inaugural
"But, in a larger sense, we cannot dedicate, we cannot consecrate, we cannot hallow this ground."             President Abraham Lincoln, Gettysburg Address

Cacophony: harsh joining of sounds.

"We want no parlay with you and your grisly gang who work your wicked will."
    British Prime Minister Winston Churchill -referring to Hitler.

Catachresis: a harsh metaphor involving the use of a word beyond its strict sphere.
"I listen vainly, but with thirsty ear."
    General Douglas MacArthur, Farewell Address

Chiasmus: two corresponding pairs arranged not in parallels (a-b-a-b) but in inverted order (a-b-b-a); from shape of the Greek letter chi (X).

"Those gallant men will remain often in my thoughts and in my prayers always."
    General Douglas MacArthur
"Renown'd  for conquest, and in council skill'd."
    Marcus Tullius Cicero

Climax: arrangement of words, phrases, or clauses in an order of ascending power. Often the last emphatic word in one phrase or clause is repeated as the first emphatic word of the next.

"One equal temper of heroic hearts,
Made weak by time and fate, but strong in will
To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield."
        Tennyson, " Ulysses"

Euphemism: substitution of an agreeable or at least non-offensive expression for one whose plainer meaning might be harsh or unpleasant.

Examples:   Euphemisms for " stupid"

A few fries short of a Happy Meal.

A few beers short of a six-pack.

Dumber than a box of hair.

Doesn't have all his cornflakes in one box.

The wheel's spinning, but the hamster's dead.

One Fruit Loop shy of a full bowl.

All foam, no beer.

The cheese slid off his cracker.

Body by Fisher, brains by Mattel.

Hyperbole: exaggeration for emphasis or for rhetorical effect.
"If you call me that name again, I'm going to explode!"

Irony: expression of something which is contrary to the intended meaning; the words say one thing but mean another.
*Yet Brutus says he was ambitious;
And Brutus is an honourable man.
        Shakespeare's Mark Antony in "Julius Caesar" 
Metaphor: implied comparison achieved through a figurative use of words; the word is used not in its literal sense, but in one analogous to it.
*Life's but a walking shadow; a poor player,That struts and frets his hour upon the stage. "
Shakespeare, in "Macbeth"
*From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent.         W. Churchill
Oxymoron: apparent paradox achieved by the juxtaposition of words which seem to contradict one another.
*I must be cruel only to be kind."    Shakespeare, Hamlet
  "Hurts so good"   John Cougar Melancamp

            "Jumbo Shrimp"

Paradox: an assertion seemingly opposed to common sense, but that may yet have some truth in it.
*What a pity that youth must be wasted on the young."
         George Bernard Shaw
Personification: attribution of personality to an impersonal thing.
*England expects every man to do his duty."
         Lord Nelson

           The rose was a soft as a baby's skin

            "Rise up and defend the Motherland"
                    Line from "Enemy at the Gates"

Pleonasm: use of superfluous or redundant words, often enriching the thought.
*No one, rich or poor, will be excepted.
*Ears pierced while you wait!
*I have seen no stranger sight since I was born.

Simile: an explicit comparison between two things using 'like' or 'as'.
*My love is as a fever, longing still
For that which longer nurseth the disease"
         Shakespeare, Sonnet CXLVII
*Reason is to faith as the eye to the telescope"
        D. Hume
*Let us go then, you and I,
While the evening is spread out against the sky,
Like a patient etherized upon a table"
        T.S. Eliot, The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock

Syllepsis: use of a word with two others, with each of which it is understood differently.

*We must all hang together or assuredly we will all hang separately.
            Benjamin Franklin
Tautology: repetition of an idea in a different word, phrase, or sentence.

"With malice toward none, with charity for all."
        President Abraham Lincoln, Second Inaugural

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