Study questions on Gildea, Barricades and Borders, Chapters 1-3


CH. 1

How was Europe's population changing in the early 1800s and why?  Was this a uniform pattern of change?  Explain.

How were population changes linked to changes in agriculture and industry?

How were population changes related to urbanization?

Did all of this rising population remain in Europe? Explain.

Was the expansion of the European economy in the early 1800s based primarily upon domestic markets?  Explain, and explain how the answer was related to patterns of regional economic development.

How did the revolutionary and Napoleonic wars effect the European economy?

How and why did changes in grain prices in the 1829s effect the economy and shape the international debate over free trade?

How were changes in transportation linked to the rise of free trade and to regional economic patterns?

Were the interests of peasant communities always identical with the interests of capitalism and "efficiency"?  Explain.  What were the implications?

Was growing social stratification in rural communities entirely caused by enclosure movements?  Explain.

Where and why was serfdom still in force in the early 1800s, and where and why had it been abolished?

Had the abolition of serfdom always meant the weakening of the nobility?  Explain.

What system of production dominated European manufacturing in the early 1800s?  What advantages did the guild structure hold for producers, and what forces were disrupting the guild system?

According to Gildea, what was the real key to the industrial revolution in the early 1800s?  Was it the introduction of new technology?  Explain.

Did skilled workers welcome advances in industrialization, and how did the process effect the gender balance in industry in the early 1800s?

Was the growth of industry in the early 1800s a product the influx of capital from professional investors?  Explain why shortages of capital were common.

What impact did railroads have on patterns of investment?

Had the French Revolution completely destroyed the old order of privilege in Europe?  Explain.  What social group still dominated high culture in the early 1800s?

What sort of "bourgeois" careers were considered "respectable" in the early 1800s, and were there enough such posts to satisfy the needs of the educated middle class? 

Was the European nobility a homogenous group in the early 1800s?  How was the character of nobility changing?


Ch. 2

What is Gildea's view of Napoleon?  Does he see Napoleon as a revolutionary?  As concerned with social equality?  With eradicating privilege?  With liberating people from tyranny? Explain.

What was the Continental System, and did it work?

Does Gildea think that Napoleon cared about "European confederation"?  Explain.

Why was the Peninsular war so important to both Napoleon and the British?

Why did Napoleon invade Russia in 1812, and what were the results?

What were Napoleon's main goals in conquered territories?  Why did he impose the civil code, etc.?

No matter what his reasons, did Napoleon's policies weaken Feudalism in Europe?  Explain.  What about in Austria and Russia?

Did nationalism mean the same thing across Europe?  Explain. 

In France in 1789, nationalism had been revolutionary; was anti-French patriotism in Austria, Russia, or England tied to revolutionary ideas or changes?  How was nationalism beginning to change as a political tool?


Ch. 3

Who were the main players in the Congress of Vienna, and what was their primary aim?

Did the Congress recognize the overthrow of monarchies in France and elsewhere?  Explain.

Did the Congress promote German or Italian unification? Explain.

What was the Holy Alliance and what were its aims?  Were they very successful?  Explain.

What precipitated the 1830 revolution in France and what were the results?  Was France the only place to experience a revolution that year?  Explain.

Was England free of social and political unrest during this period?  Explain.

What social classes/groups generally were strong supporters of Liberalism and why?

What were the main "hot spots" where the great powers' interests clashed in this period?

Where did ethnic complexity complicate nationalism and why?

Was defining "the nation" a simple matter in all of Europe?  Explain.

Why were some Southern and Eastern European states threatened by nationalism?

How did the basic mode of government differ in Eastern vs Western Europe?

What were the main differences between Liberals and Radicals in the 1830s-1840s?

How was the failure of the Chartist movement linked to the growing rift between liberals and radicals in England?

How did the 1830 revolution and subsequent unrest affect the relationship between liberals and radicals in France?

Did French and German radicals in the 1830s and 1840s agree with the principles of capitalism?  Explain.

Did the Prussian or Austrian states encourage liberalism in the 1830s-1840s?  Explain.

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