Fall 2004 CVA Lecture Study Guide 3


The test will consist of a variety of formats including short answer, essay, definitions, possibly more objective questions as well (multi-choice, T,F, etc).


  1. Read Chapters over internal systems. Use my lecture notes as a guide to your reading.
  2. Study the first two study guides and your exams.
  3. What are the functions of the digestive system?
  4. At certain times during my spiel over the digestive system one could get the idea that the anatomy is conservative across the craniates. On the other hand, I spend a great deal of time talking about the variability that exists among us.So, Iím confused.Is it the case that the anatomy of the digestive system is conservative or variable across the craniates?What about across Mammalia?
  5. Be able to label a histological diagram of the generalized digestive lining.
  6. Be able to label (id and function) diagrams of digestive systems of various vertebrates?
  7. What seems to be a major predictor of convolution in the small intestine?Is it the same reason an organism would have a valvular intestine?
  8. Define: Pharynx, oropharynx, nasopharynx, laryngopharynx, esophagus, pylorus, bile duct, cystic duct, valvular intestine, stomach, iintestine, large intestine, small intestine, digitiform gland, cloaca, cloacal aperature, anal pores, gall bladder, liver, pyloric caeca, swim bladder duct, duodenum, pancreas, pancreatic duct, common bile duct, hepatic bile duct, sphincter of Oddi, ampulla of Vater, jejunum, ileum, colon, anus, Caecum, rectum, crop, gizzard, proventriculus, convolutions, surface area to volume ratio relationships, gastroesophageal sphincter, ruminoreticular fold, rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasums, reticuloomasal sphincter, cud, regurgitation, fermentation, liver. islet of Langerhans.
  9. Define: liver, hepatic lobe, hepatic lobule, central vein, hepatic portal vein, hepatic vein, sinusoid, blood constituents in two vessels of hepatic triad, constituents of bile duct in liver, canaliculi,
  10. What are the functions of the liver?
  11. Why do we say that the liver and pancreas are both exocrine and endocrine glands?What is the difference?What do they secrete with respect to both aspects?
  12. Trace the flow of blood from the intestines to the heart.
  13. Describe the biliary duct system.
  14. Describe the equation for respiratory efficency?What are the assumptions of the model?
  15. What are the conditions for high efficiency?In other words, what predictions might you make about an organism that needs to maximize efficency?
  16. Very important question:What are the trade-offs associated with respiratory efficiency?
  17. How do organism adjust or optimize respiration?Why would they want to?
  18. It seems to me that life in the water would suck with respect to trying to load and unload oxygen and carbon dioxide.What are the problems a fish must overcome?Is it different for fresh and salt water organisms? How do these organisms deal with fluxing solute concentrations and respiration?
  19. Describe gill development in an elasmobranch.
  20. What are the main differences in the elasmobranch and teleost respiratory apparatus?What about a lamprey?
  21. How does a lamprey breathe when it is feeding from the side of a fish?
  22. Big question: Describe the flow of blood and gas exchange media (water, air) through the respiratory apparatus of various craniates.Include birds, mammals, teleosts and sharks.
  23. What is the benefit of counter current flow over concurrent flow?Know those graphs.
  24. What is pump ventilation?Describe the action of pump ventilation.Describe the action of ram ventilation?What is a major anatomical difference in sharks pumping versus those ramming?Does this place constraints on their life histories?Behaviors? Habitats?
  25. Define terms related to respiraton.
  26. During breathing in fish, why isnít water forced down the esophagus?
  27. Describe accessory respiratory mechanisms?What environmental or ecological conditions are hypothesized to have led to their evolution?
  28. What is a bimodal breather?
  29. In Accessory respiratory mechanisms, there seem to be brand new innovations as well as modifications of existing anatomy.Expound.
  30. Describe the hypothesis of the evolution of lungs from a swim bladder.Use a phylogeny for visual aid.
  31. What is the difference between physostomous and physoclisous swim bladders.
  32. Describe the action of a physoclostous swim bladder.Use oxyhemeglobin, relative acidity (pH), arterial and venous blood flow, rete mirable, gas gland, counter-current multiplier, oval and sphincter.
  33. What is a counter-current multiplier?
  34. Describe the buccal pumping of a frog.
  35. What are the main differences between amphibian and reptilian lungs?Why the differences?How can a frog survive on such low amounts of A?
  36. Describe aspiration in a crocodilian.
  37. Describe the major anatomical features of the mammalian respiratory apparatus?Is the trachea involved with gas exchange?Why is the terminal bronchiole not terminal?
  38. What is the function of the secondary palate?
  39. Describe breathing in birds.
  40. Describe the differences in vocalization anatomy among Woody woodpecker, Kermit the frog and Darby Crash.
  41. Define: ventilation, compartmentalization, pulmonary septa, aspiration pump, respiration, diaphragmatic muscle, lung, intercostals muscles, liver???, tracheal ring, choncha, auditory tube, pharynx, diaphragm, bronchus, bronchiole, resp. bronchioles, alveolus, alveolar sac, epiglottis, air sacs, air capillaries, parabronchus, antrum, respiratory labyrinth, syrinx, medioventral bronchus, mediodorsal bronchus, accelerating segment, (also, describe action of the accelerating segment), multi-cyclic respiration in birds, uniform pooled gas exchange, cross-current exhange, counter current exchange, clavicular air sac, tympanic membrane, syringeal musculature.
  42. What are the functions of excretory system?
  43. Name and identify the functions of the various excretory systems of the craniates.
  44. What are the two main competing hypotheses associated with the evolution of the craniate kidney?
  45. Is the kidney endocrine or exocrine?
  46. Be able to label a diagram of an archinephros.Where is the glomerulus located in larval and adult craniates?
  47. Why are the afferent and efferent arterioles different diameters?
  48. Define: renal corpuscle, urinary space, visceral layer, urinary pole, vascular pole, glomerulus, renal lobule, retroperitoneal, parietal layer, podocyte, loop of henle, collecting ducts, gills???.
  49. What are some environmental challenges and solutions of getting rid of nitrogenous wastes yet maintaining a proper water balance?