Fall 2004 CVA Lecture Study Guide 3
The test will consist of a
variety of formats including short answer, essay, definitions, possibly more
objective questions as well (multi-choice, T,F, etc).
- Read Chapters over internal systems. Use my
lecture notes as a guide to your reading.
- Study the first two study guides and your exams.†
- What are the functions of the digestive
- At certain times during my spiel over the
digestive system one could get the idea that the anatomy is conservative
across the craniates. On the other hand, I spend a great deal of time
talking about the variability that exists among us.† So, Iím confused.† Is it the case that the anatomy of the
digestive system is conservative or variable across the craniates?† What about across Mammalia?
- Be able to label a histological diagram of the
generalized digestive lining.
- Be able to label (id and function) diagrams of
digestive systems of various vertebrates?
- What seems to be a major predictor of convolution
in the small intestine?† Is it the
same reason an organism would have a valvular
- Define: Pharynx, oropharynx,
esophagus, pylorus, bile duct, cystic duct, valvular
intestine, stomach, iintestine, large intestine,
small intestine, digitiform gland, cloaca, cloacal aperature, anal pores, gall bladder, liver, pyloric caeca, swim bladder duct, duodenum, pancreas,
pancreatic duct, common bile duct, hepatic bile duct, sphincter of Oddi, ampulla of Vater, jejunum, ileum, colon, anus, Caecum, rectum,
crop, gizzard, proventriculus, convolutions,
surface area to volume ratio relationships, gastroesophageal
sphincter, ruminoreticular fold, rumen,
reticulum, omasum, abomasums, reticuloomasal sphincter, cud, regurgitation,
fermentation, liver. islet of Langerhans.
- Define: liver, hepatic lobe, hepatic lobule,
central vein, hepatic portal vein, hepatic vein, sinusoid, blood
constituents in two vessels of hepatic triad, constituents of bile duct in
- What are the functions of the liver?
- Why do we say that the liver and pancreas are
both exocrine and endocrine glands?†
What is the difference?† What
do they secrete with respect to both aspects?
- Trace the flow of blood from the intestines to
- Describe the biliary
- Describe the equation for respiratory efficency?† What
are the assumptions of the model?
- What are the conditions for high efficiency?† In other words, what predictions might
you make about an organism that needs to maximize efficency?
- Very important question:† What are the trade-offs
associated with respiratory efficiency?
- How do organism adjust
or optimize respiration?† Why would
they want to?
- It seems to me that life in the water would suck
with respect to trying to load and unload oxygen and carbon dioxide.† What are the problems a fish must
overcome?† Is it different for fresh
and salt water organisms? How do these organisms deal with fluxing solute
concentrations and respiration?
- Describe gill development in an elasmobranch.
- What are the main differences in the elasmobranch and teleost
respiratory apparatus?† What about a
- How does a lamprey breathe when it is feeding
from the side of a fish?
- Big question: Describe the flow of blood and gas
exchange media (water, air) through the respiratory apparatus of various
craniates.† Include birds, mammals,
teleosts and sharks.
- What is the benefit of counter current flow over
concurrent flow?† Know those graphs.
- What is pump ventilation?† Describe the action of pump
ventilation.† Describe the action of
ram ventilation?† What is a major
anatomical difference in sharks pumping versus those ramming?† Does this place
constraints on their life histories?† Behaviors? Habitats?
- Define terms related to respiraton.
- During breathing in fish, why isnít water forced
down the esophagus?
- Describe accessory respiratory mechanisms?† What environmental or ecological
conditions are hypothesized to have led to their evolution?
- What is a bimodal breather?
- In Accessory respiratory mechanisms, there seem
to be brand new innovations as well as modifications of existing
- Describe the hypothesis of the evolution of lungs
from a swim bladder.† Use a
phylogeny for visual aid.
- What is the difference between physostomous and physoclisous
- Describe the action of a physoclostous
swim bladder.† Use oxyhemeglobin, relative acidity (pH), arterial and
venous blood flow, rete mirable,
gas gland, counter-current multiplier, oval and sphincter.
- What is a counter-current multiplier?
- Describe the buccal pumping of a frog.
- What are the main differences between amphibian
and reptilian lungs?† Why the
differences?† How can a frog survive
on such low amounts of A?
- Describe aspiration in a crocodilian.
- Describe the major anatomical features of the
mammalian respiratory apparatus?† Is
the trachea involved with gas exchange?†
Why is the terminal bronchiole not terminal?
- What is the function of the secondary palate?
- Describe breathing in birds.
- Describe the differences in vocalization anatomy
among Woody woodpecker, Kermit the frog and Darby Crash.
- Define: ventilation, compartmentalization,
pulmonary septa, aspiration pump, respiration, diaphragmatic muscle, lung,
intercostals muscles, liver???, tracheal ring, choncha,
auditory tube, pharynx, diaphragm, bronchus, bronchiole, resp. bronchioles, alveolus, alveolar sac, epiglottis,
air sacs, air capillaries, parabronchus, antrum,
respiratory labyrinth, syrinx, medioventral bronchus, mediodorsal
bronchus, accelerating segment, (also, describe action of the accelerating
segment), multi-cyclic respiration in birds, uniform pooled gas exchange,
cross-current exhange, counter current exchange,
clavicular air sac, tympanic membrane, syringeal musculature.
- What are the functions of excretory system?
- Name and identify the functions of the various
excretory systems of the craniates.
- What are the two main competing hypotheses
associated with the evolution of the craniate kidney?
- Is the kidney endocrine or exocrine?
- Be able to label a diagram of an archinephros.†
Where is the glomerulus located in larval and adult craniates?
- Why are the afferent and efferent arterioles
- Define: renal corpuscle, urinary space, visceral
layer, urinary pole, vascular pole, glomerulus, renal lobule,
retroperitoneal, parietal layer, podocyte, loop
of henle, collecting ducts, gills???.
- What are some environmental challenges and
solutions of getting rid of nitrogenous wastes yet maintaining a proper